Affluent foreign patients needing challenging medical treatment choose to fly to our health care institutions, such as the Mayo Clinic, the Cleveland Clinic, the Massachusetts General Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Hospital. Consider the following six examples. First, an estimated forty-five million U.
Medieval romance narratives astound the modern reader by their broad circulation in France, Germany, England, The Netherlands, Italy, Scandinavia, Portugal, Greece and Spain, and by the many stories, characters, themes, and motifs they hold in common.
These narratives did not conform to a single, easily discernible type; rather, they sprang from diverse origins and took a myriad of shapes.
Thanks to over one hundred years of scholarship, in which the stories contained within medieval manuscripts have been edited, analyzed, and interpreted — an enterprise that is still ongoing — the genre of medieval romance has come to encompass far more than the celebrated tales of King Arthur.
Medieval romances survive in a rich spectrum of narratives whose themes and issues intersect with virtually every aspect of medieval social and cultural life. The earliest vernacular romances were free translations of Latin epics and chronicles into French, composed in the mid-twelfth century at the Angevin royal court of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine in England, where AngloNorman, a form of Old French, was the literary language of the elite.
The lively style of the Old French octosyllabic couplet soon became the preferred mode for clerks who would tell tales of love and adventure to aristocratic audiences in the francophone circles of England and France.
At the same time, other early verse narratives, unrelated to Arthurian lore, also sowed the seeds for later cultivation. Their survival in literary and operatic forms in the present makes the Tristan legend one of the founding romantic myths of European culture.
Chapter 1: Management TRUE/FALSE 1. While good management is basic to starting and growing a business, once some measure of success has been achieved, good management becomes less important. ANS: F Good management is basic to starting a business, growing a business, and maintaining a business once it has achieved some measure of success%(96). Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The Histoire ancienne jusqu’à César. individual erotic episodes from the romances expand into free-standing works. in large part. reason and measure are the social habits most persistently subverted or exceeded by eroticism in all its forms. though.
The framework of biographical romance, which recounts the extraordinary history of an individual or a family, served to tell the stories of exemplary national heroes, for example, in the Middle English Havelok the Dane.
These might later be recopied or re-adapted in fresh surroundings, in other households, in new linguistic or political terrains. As early as the s, the taste for AngloNorman and French romances migrated to nearby German-speaking territories in the area of the lower Rhine.
The refashioning of matters French soon became a hallmark of elite culture at the great German courts, as evidenced by authors such as Eilhart von Oberge TristrantHeinrich von Veldeke Eneideand Hartmann von Aue Erec.
In England, the shift in taste from romances written in French to romances written in Middle English occurred gradually from the midthirteenth century onward as the appeal of romance spread to the gentry and to bourgeois readers.
Spanish romance developed more independently of French courtly models. The earliest romances, adaptations of the tales of Alexander and Apollonius, were strongly didactic, and Arthurian themes arrived relatively late in Spain and sometimes through Italian intermediaries.
The relative autonomy of Spanish romance from French sources and its tendency to critique courtly conventions may have helped pave the way for the bold initiative of Cervantes, whose sophisticated juxtaposition of romance and realism in Don Quixote launched a new literary adventure, that of the European novel.
Despite the precarious conditions of manuscript culture, large numbers of romances have survived. No single social agenda pervades European romance: From the beginning, however, the tension between courtly ideals and social realities was often underscored in the very texts that attempted to mask it.
Toward the end of the Middle Ages, as the resources of noble families were sapped by the Hundred Years War in France and England, after the Black Death had ravaged Europe, and as cultural production moved increasingly from courts to urban centers or bourgeois households, the themes of romance began to outgrow their original, chivalric molds, and their offspring took a variety of new shapes.
What was once the new literature for a young noble society in effervescent transformation was discarded as the vestige of a class whose privileges were perceived, by some, as beginning to outlive their social utility.
Yet if the forms of chivalric romance gradually changed and faded over time, romance as a mode remained alive within European culture.
The great questions posed by romance — about personal and social identity, love and honor, good and evil — were neither resolved nor, at some level, supplanted. The Companion to Medieval Romance is presented in three parts.
This section concerns itself primarily with Old French, Anglo-Norman and German texts, since these are the earliest works of vernacular romance narrative. The essays in part two, European Romance and Medieval Society: Roberta Krueger and Sheila Fisher present two views of the way romances in different social and national settings constructed and questioned gender roles.Esplora; Accedi; Crea un utente; Pubblicare ×.
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